Potential of Food and Agro-Industrial Wastes for Cost-Effective Bacterial Cellulose Production: An Updated Review of Literature

Shaukat Khan1

Mazhar Ul-Islam1,Email

Atiya Fatima1

Sehrish Manan2

Waleed Ahmad Khattak3

Muhammad Wajid Ullah2,Email

Guang Yang4,Email

1Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Dhofar University, Salalah 211, Oman
2Biofuels Institute, School of The Environmental and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, P.R. China 
3Scholl’s Wellness Company Limited, East Yorkshire, HU1 2BN, United Kingdom
4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, P.R. China 

 

Abstract

Bacterial cellulose (BC), a biopolymer produced by acetic acid bacteria, has been receiving immense consideration over the past couple of decades owing to its unique properties and potential for broad-spectrum applications in various fields. However, the large-scale production of BC and the commercial use of BC-based products have been limited by its high production cost, mainly caused by the expensive medium components. Therefore, one of the important aspects of BC research is the exploration of alternative low-cost media. To this end, many researchers have explored the potential of various food and agro-industrial wastes as alternative low-cost substrates for BC production. These materials are rich in glucose, proteins, minerals, and other nutrients, that can support bacterial growth and BC production. The optimization of process parameters, such as pH, temperature, and agitation; addition of nutrients; selection of a suitable bacterial strain; and improving the pretreatment of waste resources can significantly improve BC production. This review describes various fermentation methods used for BC production as well as biochemical and molecular regulation of BC production during its microbial synthesis. It comprehensively discusses the possibility of producing BC from different food and agro-industrial waste resources, and analyzes how the composition of the medium affects the properties of BC. It is anticipated that the utilization of food and agro-industrial wastes for BC production offers a promising and sustainable approach to reduce waste and produce a valuable product; however, further research is required to optimize the process and develop cost-effective methods for large-scale production.

Potential of Food and Agro-Industrial Wastes for Cost-Effective Bacterial Cellulose Production: An Updated Review of Literature