Anti-Bacterial Activity of Kalzhat Clay Functionalized with Ag and Cu Nanoparticles

Sana Kabdrakhmanova1,Email

K. S. Joshy2, 3

Aiswarya Sathian3

Kadiran Aryp1, 4

Kydyrmolla Akatan5,Email

Esbol Shaimardan4

Madiar Beisebekov4

Temirkhanova Gulden4

Ainur Kabdrakhmanova1,4

Aida Maussumbayeva6

Tomy Muringayil Joseph7

Sabu Thomas3,Email

1Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Satbayev University, Almaty, 050000, Kazakhstan.
2School of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam – 686 560, Kerala, India.
3School of Energy Materials, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, Kerala, India.
4Scientific Center of Composite Materials, Almaty, 050000, Kazakhstan.
5National Scientific Laboratory, S. Amanzholov East Kazakhstan University, Oskemen, 070020, Kazakhstan.
6Department of ишщдщпн, I. ZhansugurovZhetysu University, Taldykorgan, 040009, Kazakhstan.
7Department of Polymer Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, G. Narutowicza, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland.

Abstract

The advent of multidrug-resistant microorganisms and associated outbreaks are major threats facing humanity. Therefore, additonal approaches are being explored, so as to create new antimicrobial agents that can be utilized over multiple cycles. To this end, functionalized clay with metal nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications has been formulated. Natural Kalzhat clay from the Almaty region of Kazakhstan was functionalized with silver and copper nanoparticles, following their in-situ synthesis. The unprocessed Kalzhat clay was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and elemental analysis (EDX). The clay was treated with sodium carbonate before functionalization. The EDX, FT-IR and XRD analysis of the clay confirmed the presence of bentonites. The synthesized nanoparticles of silver and copper were also characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, and EDX analysis. TEM images of the nanoparticles confirmed a spherical morphology in the nano size range, with an average diameter of 29.85±14.34nm for AgNPs and of 75.37±28.24 nm for CuNPs. The clay impregnated with Ag and Cu nanostructures showed excellent antimicrobial activity against pathogenic gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria, with inhibition zones of 10.5mm (AgNP) and 25mm (CuNP), and of 8.5mm (AgNP) and 13.5mm (CuNP), respectively. Hence, such metal nanoparticles incorporated into clay show promising anti-bacterial application, suggesting that clay could be used as a functional material in order to limit the spread of bacteria in agricultural and biomedical applications.

Anti-Bacterial Activity of Kalzhat Clay Functionalized with Ag and Cu Nanoparticles