The climate adaptation strategies employed by traditional folk houses provide a theoretical basis and experience for the development of sustainable architecture. This study aimed to perform a quantitative analysis of the traditional Muya folk houses in Tibetan plateau, China. To understand the indoor building environment characteristics, variation rules, and residents' thermal comfort in winter, a field investigation of traditional Muya folk houses was conducted, and its building environment was evaluated by measuring indoor and outdoor environmental parameters. To evaluate the building performance and environmental level of the whole year, this study also used softwares such as Ecotect, Grasshopper, Phoenics and TRNSYS to conduct numerical simulation on the model of Muya folk house. The results show that the Muya folk houses adapt to the local environment well, and the overall energy consumption of the traditional Muya folk houses was lower than that of the modern construction technology and materials. The research results provide theoretical support for the design of vernacular architecture and new rural houses in Tibetan plateau.