Overview of Mechanical Characterization of Bone using Nanoindentation Technique and Its Applications

Vishwanath Managuli1,#

Yashwant Sing Bothra2,#

Sujith Kumar S3

Piyush Gaur4

Prasanna Lokadolalu Chandracharya5,Email

1Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India -576104.

2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science & Engineering, University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands.

3Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Material Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India.

4Mechanical Engineering Cluster, School of Engineering, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Bidholi Campus, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India - 248002

5Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India -576104.

#These authors contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

The nanoindentation has proved to be a most promising technique in the investigation of the bone at the level of individual osteons and lamellae. It provides the nanomechanical properties of bone at submicron levels without being affected by its size, shape, and porosity. Its application in the study of bone requires the understanding of its functionality, modes, and influencing factors that have an impact on the outcome of the investigation. This necessitates a comprehensive a review.  In the recent past, considerable attention is also paid to the elastic, time-dependent or viscoelastic response of the bone by conducting static, creep and nano-dynamic mechanical analysis (Nano-DMA) studies. Studies have also shown that at submicron levels, the mechanical properties of bone differ depending on the location and direction of testing within the bone, and among the individuals. Also, the impact of diseases progression and treatment procedures can be understood from variation in the biomechanical properties. This review focuses on the nanoindentation technique, its relevant modes used in the bone study, popular contact models used in the data analysis, various influencing parameters, recent applications such as the effect of aging, cancer, various diseases, and potential role in clinical studies such as to understand the effect of the treatment processes. 

Overview of Mechanical Characterization of Bone using Nanoindentation Technique and Its Applications