Acoustic emission (AE) sensor for concrete structure damage monitoring was designed and prepared by using piezoelectric ceramics as components and aluminum and aluminum oxide as matching layers. The conductivity frequency diagram before and after piezoelectric elements packaging was studied as well as the AE response characteristics after ball impact and pencil lead break (PLB). The conductance frequency diagram indicate that the dominant resonant frequency is reduced. The ball hitting research results show that the amplitude, hit counts and rising time, produced by rubber and steel ball impact are basically the same, nevertheless, the energy produced by steel ball impact is higher than that of the rubber ball, which is about 20 times of the rubber ball. AE response amplitude and hit counts caused by the same kind of balls are basically same, but the rising time and energy in concrete slab are about 0.1 times of those in aluminum and steel slabs. The PLB results show that there exist a highest receiving sensitivity for the AE sensor made of aluminum matching layer in concrete slab, and made of aluminum oxide matching layer in aluminum and steel slab, respectively. The attenuation coefficient of sensor is the largest in concrete slab.