The purpose of providing an anti-reflection coating (ARC) layer on the surface of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells is to stipulate a unique dielectric material medium that causes destructive interference of the reflected light from device surfaces and minimize the reflection of light, which can enhance the optoelectrical properties. The optimization of thickness of niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) as an ARC layer using a low-cost, sol-gel spin coating deposition process for the high photovoltaic performance of the c-Si solar cell using a PC1D simulation study. The lowest average reflectance of ~7.21% was achieved at 75 nm thickness of the ARC layer in comparison to others. In a simulation, the different value of thicknesses of the ARC layers was selected as input parameters to explore the photovoltaic characteristics of c-Si solar cells. The simulated results show that the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.92% and more than 95% external quantum efficiency (EQE) at 75 nm thickness of ARC layer. This work on the optimization of thicknesses of the ARC layer would provide the utilization of low-cost Nb2O5 ARC layer-based for the development of high-performance c-Si solar cells.