High-precision three-dimensional (3D) printing for fabricating the arbitrarily, complex 3D microstructures with a resolution of a few microns or below are attractive across a broad range of applications. Advances have been made in the field of high-precision 3D printing, however, there are still many challenges and drawbacks that need to be overcome in order to print high-precision and high-quality 3D microstructures in a relatively flexible, low-cost and versatile way. This review summarizes some promising high-precision 3D printing technologies, including direct ink writing (DIW), two-photon polymerization (TPP), and electrochemical fabrication (EFAB). Herein, we mainly focus on the materials used in high-precision 3D printing and their applications reported so far. At the same time, we also put forward a comprehensive view of their developments and challenges, which providing a benchmark for future research and development of high-precision 3D printing technologies.