As a type of ultra-light and super thermal insulation solid state porous materials, aerogels have been attracted increasing attention for aerospace, transportation, and building insulation applications. However, when aerogels are applied in these fields, resistance to high temperature is a prerequisite for them. The most traditional silica aerogels can resist up to 600 oC, but their porous structures are destroyed at higher temperatures and no longer possess the excellent thermal insulation capacity and low density. Though a great number of new aerogels have been reported in the past two decades, the number of aerogels that could resistant to ultra-high temperature, e.g. >800 oC, is relative few. Nevertheless, it’s exciting to see that more and more aerogels that can resistant to temperatures higher than 1000 oC, and even up to 1500 oC, have been reported in the past few years. This paper will give an overview of aerogels that could resistant to more than 800 oC, and they defined as high temperature resistant aerogels (HTRAs) in this review. The synthetic strategies, mechanisms, chemical compositions, and specific applications of the HTRAs will be reviewed and discussed. This paper would be a timely review to summarized the most recent progress in the HTRAs, and provide insights into the designing of various HTRAs.