Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as a new category of porous hybrid materials that have fascinating structures and diverse applications. These are also called porous coordination polymers. It has become increasingly more important to synthesize new MOFs, to reveal their structure–property relationships for the purpose of rationally designing novel frameworks with expected properties. At present, much research has been conducted to develop and rationalize the design and synthesis of MOFs. Currently, MOFs or/and MOF-based materials have been studied to look at their applications such as gas storage, gas separation, heterogeneous catalysis, energy production, sensing, drug delivery, electronics, bioreactor, optics, etc. This review depicts advances in both synthetic methods of MOFs and their structure analysis. Additionally, several applications of MOFs for different purposes such as medical and biological applications, removal of absorption and separation of toxic substances from gas and liquid, catalysts, storage of clean energies and environmental applications has been accounted for.