Benzoxazine is a new kind of phenolic resin developed in recent years. It possesses a lot of interesting properties including flexible molecular design, nearly zero curing shrinkage and corresponding polybenzoxazine shows excellent mechanical and heat resistance properties. However, like other thermosetting resins, polybenzoxazine also faces the disadvantages of high brittleness and low impact strength during use. This paper briefly summaries the research progress of the toughening modification of polybenzoxazine, including rubber elastomer, inorganic particles, thermoplastic engineering plastic, other thermosetting resin, hyperbranched polymer and benzoxazine molecular design modification. Furthermore, the development direction of the toughening modification of polybenzoxazine has prospected.