Conventional Si photovoltaic cells cannot convert full solar energy spectrum (400~2500 nm) into electricity owing to the mismatch between Si band gap and broad range of solar photon energies. Transparent silicon PV cell allows sunlight in the wavelength of 1100~2500 nm to transmit through itself and irradiate on the thermal absorber below. The traditional photon management method based on texturing silicon layer with nanostructures can enhance 400~1100 nm absorptivity and 1100~2500 nm transmittance of transparent silicon PV cell. However, an increase in charge carrier capture and a decrease in electricity generation efficiency are often observed with this. In this study, a novel spectral splitting method based on front-located wavelength-sized TiO2 moth-eyenanophotonic structure is proposed, which can inhibit the increase of charge carrier capture and recombination. The structure was optimized by using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to achieve excellent photon anti-reflection and scattering properties. The calculation results indicated that the absorption factor and transmission factor of transparent silicon PV cell could be increased from 46% to 58% and from 11% to 14%; the relative power conversion efficiency enhancement rate and relative incident radiation power enhancement rate was 32% and 27% when the TiO2 moth-eye was adopted.