Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely applied as energy storage devices for large-scale electrical vehicle markets. Designing and ameliorating new or existing anodes are in high demand to meet the requirements of the next generation LIBs with higher energy/power densities, more excellent rate capability and longer cycling performance. Co3O4-based materials have drawn great attention as potential alternatives to the current graphite anodes due to the high capacity, abundant reserves of resource, moderate price, and simple preparation process. However, their inherent shortcoming of low conductivity and huge volume changes limit the practical applications. Different approaches have been applied to overcome these drawbacks. Herein, we summarize the recent developments in high-performance Co3O4 anode materials from their architectures, including 0D nanostructures (nanospheres, nanocrystals, nanoparticles, nanocages and nanocubes), 1D nanostructures (nanowires, nanofibers, nanorods and nanotubes), 2D nanostructures (nanosheets, nanofoils, nanoflakes and nanofilms), and 3D structures (microsized cages, hollow structures, mesoporous structure, flower-like structure). We expect that this review will shed light on the structure-property relationship for rational design and synthesis of Co3O4-based materials and promote the practical application.