In recent years, miniaturization and integration have become the development trends of electronic devices. With the power of electronic devices continuing to increase, the amount of heat generated is sharply increasing. Thermal interface material (TIM) can effectively improve heat transfer between two solid interfaces, and it plays an important role in the performance, service life and stability of electronic devices. In this case, higher requirements are put forward for thermal management, so much attention is also attached to the innovation and optimization of TIM. In this paper, recent research development of TIM is reviewed. Rheology-based modeling and design are discussed for the widely used polymeric TIMs. It is discussed for the effects of thermal conductive fillers on the properties of composites. Many studies have shown that some polymers filled with high thermal conductivity and low loss ceramics are well suitable for electronic packaging for device encapsulation. Until now, extensive attentions have been paid to the preparation of polymeric composites with high thermal conductivity for the application in electronic packaging. Finally, the problems are also discussed and the research directions of TIM in the future are prospected.