Bio-oil Production from Palm Kernel Cake Using Fast Pyrolysis Process Parameters in a Fluidized-Bed Reactor

Nuttapan Promsampao1

Boonyabhorn Duangsa2

Apichai Sawisit3

Preecha Sriprapakhand4

Nuwong Chollacoop5

Narin Siriwan6

Koson Rueangsan7,Email

Adisak Pattiya8

1Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kasetsart University, Chalermphrakiat Sakon Nakhon Province Campus, Sakon Nakhon 47000, Thailand.
2Department of Marketing, Faculty of Business Administration and Information Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Isan, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
3Department of Applied Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Liberal Arts, Rajamangala University of Technology Isan, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.
4Takasila Researh and Development Center of Energy, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Kamriang, Kantharawichai, Maha Sarakham 44150, Thailand.
5National Energy Technology Center, 114 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Rd., Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand.
6Heat Pipe and Thermal Equipment Research Unit, Faculty of Engineering, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham, Thailand.
7Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Kalasin University, Muang, Kalasin 46000, Thailand.
8Biomass Pyrolysis Frontier Research Group (BioPyro), Faculty of Engineering, Mahasarakham University, Kamriang, Kantharawichai, Maha Sarakham 44150, Thailand.


A fast pyrolysis process with a fluidized-bed reactor was investigated for producing bio-oil from palm kernel cake. The process parameters were investigated with the objective of determining the optimal bio-oil yield and properties. Using a biomass particle size of 0.2-0.5 mm, a biomass feed rate of 100 g/h, a carrier gas flow rate of 11 l/min, and a pyrolysis temperature of 550° resulted in yields of 65.5 wt% total bio-oil, 23.5 wt% char, and 11.0 wt% gas. The total bio-oil yield comprised 47.1 wt% organic bio-oil, 18.4 wt% reaction water, and <1 wt% light bio-oil. As the process conditions varied, the properties of the produced heavy bio-oil changed slightly. Heavy bio-oil had a water content of 6.2-8.7 wt%, a higher heating value of 29.8 MJ/kg, a pH value of 3.5-4.8, a density of 0.94-0.99 kg/dm3, a viscosity of 200 cSt, and a stability of 0.02 cSt/h. These results demonstrated that the characteristics of heavy bio-oil derived from palm kernel cake met the ASTM standards for pyrolysis liquid biofuels.