Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques play a crucial role in maximizing hydrocarbon production from mature oil reservoirs. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of the various EOR methods, emphasizing their principles, applications, and recent advancements. The paper covers primary, secondary, and tertiary EOR methods, including water flooding, gas injection (CO2 and N2), thermal methods (steam injection and in-situ combustion), chemical EOR (surfactant, polymer, and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding), and emerging technologies such as nanotechnology and microbial EOR. Key challenges, environmental considerations, and economic factors associated with EOR implementation are also discussed. This comprehensive review aims to serve as a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, and industry professionals seeking to enhance oil recovery efficiency and sustainability in the energy sector.