Advancements in Bladder Cancer Management: A Comprehensive Review of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Applications

Manu Sudhi1

Vinod Kumar Shukla2

Dasharathraj K Shetty3,Email

Vanshika Gupta3

Aditi Sangram Desai3

Nithesh Naik4

BM Zeeshan Hameed5,6

​​​​​​​1Department of Emergency Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal 576104, Karnataka, India.

2Department of Information Technology, School of Engineering Architecture Interior Design, Amity University, Dubai 345019, UAE.
3Department of Data Science and Computer Applications, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal 576104, Karnataka, India.
4Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal 576104, Karnataka, India.
5iTRUE (International Training and Research in Uro-oncology and Endourology) Group, Manipal 576104, Karnataka, India. 

6Department of Urology, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore 575001, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have emerged as powerful tools in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer, offering significant advancements in accuracy and speed. AI algorithms have enabled precise segmentation of the bladder wall and accurate detection of bladder tumors using non-invasive 3D image-based features from CT and MRI scans. Decision support systems based on AI have improved the assessment of treatment efficacy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. AI-assisted cystoscopy has demonstrated higher sensitivity and specificity in identifying and categorizing bladder lesions, potentially outperforming human urologists. ML algorithms, including artificial neural networks, have shown superior predictive capabilities in prognosis and outcome prediction compared to conventional models. Radiomics and ML techniques have enhanced bladder cancer staging and treatment response assessment through accurate analysis of imaging data. AI-driven biomarker discovery, including metabolomics, has the potential to revolutionize non-invasive bladder cancer diagnosis and monitoring. Automated histologic grading and molecular typing facilitated by AI have led to faster and more precise diagnoses, enabling personalized treatment plans. The integration of AI and ML in bladder cancer diagnosis has the potential to improve patient outcomes significantly. By providing faster and more precise diagnoses, AI-driven approaches can enhance treatment planning and response evaluation. Additionally, AI-assisted cystoscopy and improved biomarkers can lead to less invasive and more effective diagnostic techniques. Furthermore, AI-driven prognostic models offer a more accurate prediction of patient outcomes, enabling personalized treatment strategies. These contributions collectively indicate a promising future for AI and ML in bladder cancer management, enhancing diagnostic accuracy, treatment efficacy, and patient care.

Advancements in Bladder Cancer Management: A Comprehensive Review of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Applications