Identification of Human Coronavirus: An Overview on Conventional, Newly Developed and Alternative Methods

Zhe Wang1* 

Amit Nautiyal,2 

Xiaozhou Huang,3 

Rui He3 

Pei Dong3*

1Department of Chemistry, Oakland University, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 USA

2Department of Chemistry, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA 70125 USA
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 USA

Abstract

The recent respiratory disease (COVID-19 caused by novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2) outbreak, responsible for current pandemic, is causing a great risk to a public health. The rapid and accurate identifying methods is the key to prevent this pandemic that helps with selecting suitable treatment and saving people’s life. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is regarded as a gold standard test diagnosis of these infections with high sensitivity and specificity. It is the first nucleic acid amplification method. With advancement in research there are number of other nuclide acid amplification methods has been developed such as loop mediated isothermal amplification, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification, strand displacement amplification and rolling cycle amplification etc. These isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods are considered as promising methods due to its quick procedure time at constant temperature thus preventing the use of thermal cyclers. The various existing, improved, newly developed and alternative methods/approaches that can be used for accurate detection are being summarized in this review to assist researchers and clinicians in developing better methods for timely and effective detection of coronavirus.

Identification of Human Coronavirus: An Overview on Conventional, Newly Developed and Alternative Methods