This review aims at outlining the current state of electrospinning for the encapsulation of probiotics. A brief introduction of electrospinning regarding the principles, setups and affecting parameters is given. The materials and methods (hybrid, core-shell, and post immobilization) of electrospinning for the encapsulation of probiotics are summarized. The effects of electrospinning process, probiotic species, and additives on the viability of probiotics after electrospinning and under environmental stress are discussed. Potential applications of probiotic encapsulated by nanofibers including controlled delivery system, active packaging, and tissue engineering are introduced. In addition, the limitations of current studies and challenges for future research are addressed. This review provides better understanding of the current research status of electrospun nanofibers for encapsulation of probiotics.